|401 North Sierra Vista Drive
Tucson, AZ 85719
|Pinnipeds share a number of characters. The orbits are large relative to the size of the skull, they have a reduced number of incisors, never more than 3/2, and all the teeth in the tooth row are similar - the dentition is homodont. Here are some differences between the seals on the one hand, and the sea lions and walrus on the other:
Seals: Inhabit marine, freshwater and estuarine environments. Their hind flippers cannot be turned backwards; seals cannot walk on land and are said to be "wrigglers",
Sea Lions: Found in marine environments only. Their hind flippers can be turned forwards and they can walk, if clumsily, on land; hence they are called "walkers".
|Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus schauinslandi) This endangerd seal is the most primitive of all living seals.|
Length of skull: 9.4 inches.
|Ribbon Seal (Phoca fasciata). Found mainly in pack ice from Hokkaido and the Sea of Okhotsk to
northern Alaska and the Aleutian Islands|
Length of skull: 7.4 inches.
|Crab-eating Seal (Lobodon carcinophagus). Found primarily along the coasts and pack ice
Length of skull: 11.0 inches.
|Leopard Seal (Hydrurga leptonyx)A highly predaceous seal which has been known to attack divers,
inflicting serious bites.|
Length of skull: 14.5 inches.
|Bearded Seal (Erignathus barbatus). Found along the coasts and ice floes in the Arctic Ocean
and adjoining seas, regularly seen as far south as Hudson Bay. |
Length of skull: 8.3 inches.
|Stellers Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus): The largest of the Sea Lions can reach a length of nearly 10 feet and a
weight of one ton. They are found on both sides of the Northern Pacific. They feed on squid and a large variety of fish.
This cast is of a male.|
Length of skull: 14.5 inches.
Steller's Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) Cast of a female skull to demonstrate the extreme sexual dimorphism characteristic of the Sea Lions. Length of skull: 11.3 inches. Price: $180.00
|California Sea Lion (Zalophus califrnicus) Probably the best know of all the sea lions, this is the familiar
performer of aquariums. It is the common pinniped along the California coast, in the Galapagos Islands, and is the only
pinniped found in the Gulf of California, and is possibly found in Japan. Males reach almost 2.5 meters in length and
attain a weight of 300 kilograms. Females are smaller. The adult male has a very pronounced crest on the top of the skull.
This is a male skull. |
Length of skull: 11.8 inches.
Price: $179.00 Female skull Length 8.9 inches. Price: $159.00
|Southern Sea Lion (Otaria flavescens) Found along both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America, this animal is poorly represented in museum collections. The original for this cast has been placed in the Los Angeles County Museum. Adult males are about 2.3 meters long and weigh 300 kilograms. They feed primarily on squid and one species of crustacean. Cast is of a male. Length of skull: 13.6 inches. Price: $240.00 Southern Sea Lion (Otaria flavescens). Cast of female skull. Skull length 10.5 inches. Price: $180.00|
|Hookers Sea Lion (Phocarctos hookeri) This sea lion is found primarily in the Aukland Islands south of New Zealand.
Males are between 2 and 2.5 meters in length, and are very bulky. Fish, cephalopods, crabs and penguins are reported to be eaten.
Cast is of a male.|
Length of skull: 9.9 inches.
|Northern Fur Seal (Callorhinus ursinus) Found around the Northern Pacific from San Diego to Japan, these seals
are most common in Alaska. Males can reach 2.13 meters in length and 272 kilograms weight. Squid and a variety of fish are eaten.
Male skull length: 9.1 inches.
Female skull length: 8.0 inches. Price: $159.00
|Walrus (Odobenus rosemarius) Found in both the Pacific and Atlantic oceans; these are polar
animals. They are massive, and can move only clumsily on land. Their massive heads and long
"tusks" are familiar to nearly everyone. They seem to feed primarily on bottom-dwelling
shellfish, which they dig up using their tusks. Males can reach 3.2 meters length and weigh 1,215
kilograms. The males' tusks can reach one meter in length.
Cast is of a male skull.
Length of skull: 14.5 inches.
Single tusk (32.0 icnhes long): Price: $130.00 Pair of tusks: Price: $240.00
|Gray Seal (Halichoerus grypus) Occurs in temperate and subarctic northern Atlantic Ocean. Adult males may grow
to 2.2 meters in length and weigh 220 kilograms. The Gray Seal is a fish feeder.
Length of skull: 10 inches.
|Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) Probably the most familiar of the true seals, the Harbour Seal is found on the
coasts of both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.
Length of skull: 7.9 inches.
|Lake Baikal Seal (Phoca siberica) These small seals are found in the deepest lake in the world, and are restricted
to the waters of that lake. They grow to a length of 1.3 meters, and weigh only 90 kilograms. They feed on the fish of the
Length of skull: 6.25 inches.
|Harp Seal (Phoca groenlandica) Inhabits the open waters of the Arctic Atlantic. There is not much difference in
the size of males and females, both reaching a length of 1.6 meters and a weight of 136 kilograms. Harp Seals feed mostly
on crustaceans and fish.
Length of skull: 7.5 inches.
|Caribbean Monk Seal (Monachus tropicalis) This seal is most likely extinct; none has been seen since 1953.
This specimen was cast from a skull in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Very little is known about this animal.
Length of skull: 8.5 inches.
|Northern Elephant Seal (Mirounga leonina) is found along the coast of California and northern Mexico.
Adult males can reach a length of 4.5 meters, and a weight of 2.5 tons. Adults feed on fish and squid. Cast of male skull.|
Length of skull: 24.0 inches.
Baculum (length 11.4 inches): Price: $16.00
Northern Elephant Seal (Mirounga leonina). Cast of female skull. Skull length: 13.0 inches. Price: $299.00
References for Pinnipeds:
The best single reference, though a bit outdated in terms of taxonomy, is:
King, Judith E. Seals of the World, Second edition, 1983.
More up-to-date information can be found in Volumes 1 and 2 of the Handbook of Marine Mammals, edited by S. H. Ridgeway and J. H. Harrison, published by Academic Press in 1981. These are horrendously expensive little volumes, but are the best source of data on all the marine mammals.
A wonderful book on all aspects of the biology and evolution of sea mammals is:
Berta, Annalisa and James L. Sumich, 1999, Marine Mammals: Evolutionary Biology.
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