|401 North Sierra Vista Drive
Tucson, AZ 85719
|Canids include the dogs, foxes, coyote and wolf. While all are members of the order Carnivora, most are not, strictly speaking, carnivores. The retention of functional crushing teeth behind the carnassials enables them to eat a variety of foods, and the canids are omnivores. The dog is merely a domesticated wolf, and as such, should probably be named Canis lupus familiaris, rather than Canis familiaris, particularly now that it appears that dogs had at least two points of domestication. The extreme variability of the skulls of dogs is a result of selective breeding. As a practical hint, osteologists should avoid examining closely the skulls of a friend's living pet canid. It makes the owners nervous.|
|Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris) The skull of a domestic dog is usually easily identified by the sharply sloping forehead,
and usually by the crowded position of the teeth in back of the canines.|
Price: $79.00 - $119.00 (see below)
Domestic Dog Breeds now available:
German Shepherd (length 9.8 inches): Price $119.00
Bulldog (length 6.7 inches): Price $79.00
Pit Bull (length 8.5 inches): Price $79.00
Great Dane (length 10.5 inches): Price $119.00
|Coyote (Canis latrans). Coyotes are now found in all 48 contiguous states; they range in places north into Canada
and south into Mexico. Smaller and more gracile than a wolf.
Length of skull: 7 inches
|Bush Dog (Speothos venaticus). The Bush Dog is found in South America, and is more like an otter in behavior than
are other canids, hunting often in the water. California Academy of Sciences specimen. Cast is of a female animal.|
Length of skull: 5.25 inches.
|Side-striped Jackal (Canis adustus). The side-striped jackal is a greyish brown to tan with a white stripe from
the front legs to the hips and has a dark tail with a white tip. Side-striped jackal can weigh from 14 to 30 lb.
Males tend to be larger than the females.
Length of skull: 6 inches
|Black-backed Jackal (Canis mesomelas. The black-backed jackal is fox-like in
appearance, has tan fur, and a thick stripe of black and silver running down its back. It weighs from 15 to 30 pounds
and is 15 to 30 centimeters at the shoulder. Males are usually larger than females.
Male skull length: 6.4 inches. Price: $80.00
Female skull length: 5 inches Price: $59.00
|South American Grey Fox (Pseudalopex griseus). The South American grey fox
is found in the southern cone of South America, particularly in Argentina and Chile. Its diet consists mainly of rodents, birds,
Length of skull: 4.7 inches
|Dhole (Cuon alpinus). The dhole has large, sharp teeth, and a shorter jaw and adistinctly thicker muzzle
than most other dogs. There is one less molar on each side of its lower jaw (meaning that they have forty teeth in total).
Its dental formula (Incisors 3/3 : Canines 1/1 : Premolars 4/4 : Molars 2/2) is unique among the dog family. |
Length of skull: 7.5 inches.
|Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotis).
Length of skull: 4.6 inches
|Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides). Raccoon Dogs are native to Japan, southeastern Siberia and Manchuria.
Their diet consists of invertebrates, frogs, lizards, rodents and birds, along with seeds and berries. Those living near the
ocean will also eat crabs and scavenged marine life.|
Length of skull: 4.8 inches.
|Arctic Fox (Alopex lagopus). The Arctic fox will generally eat any meat it can find, including lemmings, Arctic hares,
birds and their eggs, and carrion. Lemmings are the most common prey. A family of foxes can eat dozens of lemmings each day.
During April and May the Arctic fox also preys on ringed seal kits when the young animals are confined to a snow den and are
relatively helpless. The Arctic fox occurs in two distinct colour morphs, "blue" and "white". |
Length of skull: 5.1 inches.
|Manchurian Wolf (Canis lupus). Probably the Tundra Wolf, Canis lupus albus
Length of skull: 11.0 inches
|Alaskan Wolf (Canis lupus pambasileus) The Alaskan Interior Wolf.|
Length of skull: 12.0 inches inches.
|Dire Wolf (Canis dirus). The extinct great wolf of the La Brea Tar Pits. The teeth of this species are massive,
able to crush the bones of the large mammals they fed on.
Length of skull: 12.2 inches
|New Guinea Singing Dog (Canis hallstrommi). Recently restored to its own species, the New Guinea Singing Dog
differs significantly from all other members of the genus, particularly in behavioral traits.|
Male skull length: 7.8 inches. Price: $79.00
Female skull length: 6.7 inches. Price: $79.00
|The Island Fox (Urocyon littoralis) is very closely related to its mainland relatives. They apparently colonized
the California Channel Islands in the late Pleistocene.
Length of skull: 4 inches.
|Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Long-legged and very fox-like, the Maned Wolf moves with a very distictive gait.
The skull is elongate.
Length of skull: 8.9 inches.
|Wolf (Canis lupus). Found in North America, Asia and Europe, this social animal lives and hunts in well organized packs.
The largest of all living canids, it can weigh as much as 175 pounds.
Length of skull: 9.5 inches.
|Bat-eared Fox (Otocyon megalotis) With a distinctive dentition having more teeth than any other canid,
the Bat-eared Fox is adapted for its largely insectivorous diet. The auditory bullae are also relatively large,
much like the Fennec Fox.|
Length of skull: 4.8 inches.
|Gray Fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) The skull of the Gray Fox has very pronounced, lyre-shaped parasagittal crests
with a relatively flat area in between them, similar to the Fennec Fox. Unlike most canids, the Gray Fox will readily take
to the trees, and their dens are sometimes found up to 30 feet off the ground. |
Length of skull: 4.75 inches.
|African Hunting Dog (Lycaon pictus) The African Hunting Dog looks like someone had splattered them with paint.
Highly social, the packs are composed mostly of males. |
Length of skull 7.4 inches.
|Fennec Fox (Fennecus zerda) Small fox native to the desert areas of the Near East. |
Skull length 3.5 inches.
References for Canids:
The best recent review of the living canids, based primarily on skull characters but also including postcranial is:
Tedford, Richard H. et al, 1995, " Phylogeny of the Caninae (Carnivora: Canidae):the Living Taxa ", American Museum Novitates, Number 3146.
A useful popular summary of the living species can be found in:
Alderton, David, 1994, Foxes, Wolves and Wild Dogs of the World
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